December 13, 2014
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costume and architecture of the Oyrat Mongols


6,0              the language of Janger is beautiful and rich, dotted with ancient folk songs, congratulatory messages, eulogy, maxims, proverbs and other folk literature, which contributes to the heroic epic’s unique grandeur and strong musical touch. As it reflects the daily life, weaponry, costume and architecture of the Oyrat Mongols, Janger is not only a literary masterpiece but also a precious document to study the society, economy, history, culture, language, and folk customs of the Oyrat Mongols. For the moment two versions of Chinese translation have been published in China and there are also copies in Japanese, German, Russian and other foreign languages in the world.

  1. Music and Dance

Since ancient time Xinjiang has been famous for its music and dance. It was recorded in blume 97 of History of North that “(people of) the state of Yanqi loved music and enjoyed dancing”. According to blume 221 of New Book of Tang, people of Yutian “were good at singing and dancing” The music-and-dance in Qiuci represented the highest level in the Western Regions. Huen Tsang said in Records of the Western Regions in the Great Tang that Qiuci “topped other states in music and dance,,,which was a faithful record of that time.

During the Western Han Dynasty, the king of Qiuci, Jiangbin married daughter of Han Princess Jieyou, Dishi, who loved the Han people’s culture and used to learn music in Chang’an. After becoming queen of Qiuci, Dishi travelled to Chang’an again with Jiangbin in 65 BC to pay tributes to the Han court. Xuandi Emperor of Han “gave them carriages, flags and drums, tens of musicians, silk products and jewelry worth hundreds of thousands of money units” The Emperor also “let them stay in Chang’an for one year and gave them expensive gifts before they finally left”. The queen of Qiuci “later came to Chang’an for a few more times and enjoyed the costume and other institutions in the Han Dynasty” The royal family of Qiuci brought back the dancing, musical instruments and musicians of the Central Plains through their contacts and interactions with the Han culture and music. With the influence of the music-and-dance of the Central Plains, Qiuci flourished in music and turned into a world-renowned Land of Singing and Dancing victor de agencia de viajes china. The music-and-dance of Qiuci was a further development of local dancing with added elements from the fine culture both in the east and in the west. According to some research, “Qiuci music relied mainly on their national instruments as jie-gu (a type of drum) topped among the 8 musical instruments, despite the admission of sheng (a reed pipe) and xiao (a vertical bamboo flute) from the Central Plains, vertical harp and pi-pa from Egypt and West Asia and copper cymbal from India and West Asia” “In composition, Qiuci music emphasized their national pieces as c Sulek Salt,was seen as the best of all, although Manichean and Buddhist pieces did exist. As to the temperament, Qiuci music basically accepted the musical system in the pre-Qin period and adopted the Five-Tone Scale and Pure-Tone Law. By merging music from the Central Plains, India and West Asia, Qiuci music contributed to the brilliant civilization of the Western Regions•”


November 27, 2014
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History of Conquerors in the World


On the eve of the west expedition, Chinggis Khan divided the areas in the Western Regions that had been and would be occupied among his three elder sons, Jochi, Chagatai and Ogedei. Based on History of Conquerors in the World by Jeflhey^, Collection of History by Lashet (pronunciation) and records by Omar (pronunciation), contemporary scholars believe that “roughly speaking, the area west of Shi River in Yer, north of today’s Aral Sea and Caspian Sea belonged to Jochi; the former territory of Western Liao, between Uygur and Transoxiana, belonged to Chagatai; and from Yemili to the north, the area of former Nayman tribe that included part of today’s Kara-Ertix River and Altay Mountains belonged to Ogedei,,J221. The land division made by Chinggis Khan laid down the groundwork for the regime pattern in the Western Regions during the Mongol period.

After Chinggis Kharis death, Ogedei, Queen Toregene Khatu, Guyuk, Queen Oghul Ghaymish and Mongke took power one after another. During that period, in 1236 (the 3rd year of Duanping reign of Song Dynasty), Ogedei sent his “eldest son for west expedition,,,and perished Kepqak and Bolga, conquered Russia, and swept Eastern European areas such as Poland and Hungary, shaking the Christian world. After succeeding to the Great Khanship, Mongke sent Hulegu onto a “west expedition”,who wiped out the Assasins(the extremist division of Islamic Ismailis advocating assassination) in today’s Iran and the Abbasid Empire in West Asia, then marched further to Syria, and finally returned home after being frustrated at Ain Jalut in today’s Palestine.

The post-Chinggis Khan expeditions to the west greatly expanded the Mongol scope of influence in the Western Regions. However, in that period, what impacted today’s Xinjiang area most was the fight for power between the Ogedei-Guyuk group and the Tolui-Mongke group Beneficios del taichi kungfu. In 1251 (the 11th year of Chunyou reign of Song Dynasty), Mongke became the Great Khan with staunch support from Batu, but he was opposed by royal princes of the Ogedei and Chagatai families, who once attempted on Mongke’s life. After that, Mongke began to suppress forcefully the two families, and all the nobles within Chinggis Kharis “Golden Clan” started to focus on their “ulus” (distributed land). Batu and his offspring founded Kepqak Khanate on the Kepqak steppe, and Hulegu set up IIKhanate in Persia and Arabia. The majority of top nobles in these two khanates later became Muslims. The Chagatai

Khanate mainly controlled today’s Xinjiang and Central Asia to the west of Xinjiang.

 


November 13, 2014
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The traffic was “off’ to the Eastern Han Dynasty


When the Western Regions were in the control of the Huns, the traffic was “off’ to the Eastern Han Dynasty, and vice versa. The road to unification of the Western Regions by the Eastern Han was tortuous, yet still, unity remained the major trend in that process.

On the whole, the Western Regions were unified under the Huns after 177 BC, and under the Western Han Dynasty after 60 BC. After 25 AD, that area was under alternate control by the Huns and Eastern Han. From that we can see unification was the dominant theme of that period for the Western Regions. As states there were mostly oasis statelets scattered in different places, the unification of the Western Regions was good for inter-state coordination, hence in the interest of local social and economic development.

The Central Plains were more advanced in terms of social and economic development than the Western Regions. Afer being unified by the central kingdom, the Western Regions enjoyed political stability and faster social and economic progress. For example, during the 10-plus years (91-102 AD) when Banchao was the local official appointed by the Eastern Han government, the Western Regions were stable and economically growing. In 97 AD (the 9th year of Yongyuan reign), in the name of the royal court, Banchao sent Ganying as envoy to Daqin (Roman Empire), who arrived at Tiaozhi (today’s Syria) but failed to cross the sea. However, historical data had it that “Tiaozhi, Anxi and countries 40,000 lis (one li is equal to half kilometer) away over the sea all valued translations and presented gifts”四.From such records we can see that after the unification of the Western Regions, China’s influence reached out to other major civilizations of the world.

  1. Policy Measures and Administrative Regimes of the Han Dynasty in the Western Regions

The unification of the Western Regions by the Han Dynasty was also a process of improving the administrative structure there. Before the Han Dynasty affirmed its controlling position, in 101 BC(the 4th year of Taichu reign), a post called Envoy Captain (shi-zhexiao-wei) was installed in Luntai (today’s Luntai) and Quli (west of today’s Korla), both central spots along the northern route Dogo y animanles en el tibet. The Envoy Captain led a number of soldiers, who also took part in agricultural activities while being stationed there. On the one hand, the Envoy Captain and his troops protected transport and provided for the travelling Han envoys; on the other, they were also a basic military force there, who could rally allied troops in the Western Regions to complete military missions when necessary.  


September 11, 2014
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The Thought in the Middle-and Long-Term Development of the Dongying Hotel


As soon as the reforms of the enterprise and market orientation has completed in the near future, the hotel will realize the transformation targets of “ establishing scientific framework and system of modern tourism enterprises and founding the crucial competition competence of the Dongying Hotel ” and then the hotel will achieve the following strategic targets on this basis.

     Current Targets

The hotel plans to accomplish the research, development and establishment work of “the development strategy of the Dongying Municipal Reception Enterprise (Group) Holding Co., Ltd. “in the near future (2-3 years). /Is an experimental unit, we will take the lead in fulfilling through internal regrouping of operational resources the preparation of two entities, namely, “the Dongying Hotel Commercial and Trading Holdings Co., Ltd.” and “the Dongying Hotel (Domestic) Travel Service Ltd.” Thus the hotel can accumulate experience of reforming work to a broader and deeper extent and can reserve capital and human resources. In the meanwhile, the hotel will find the limited company exclusively owned by it on the basis of Keying Company Staff Cafeteria

management department and the service center of foreign businessmen in the development zone in order to enter the market of property management; the hotel will establish the share holding company on the basis of Yinhe Cuisine Plaza to enter the social catering market in Dongcheng, Xicheng and Hekou districts; then the hotel will prepare to set up a commercial reception motorcade Co., Ltd. on the basis of the current reception motorcade in order to enter the car renting market of high level. Through what is mentioned above, the hotel will fundamentally form the group structure and development strategy system of “centering on industry (hotel reception industry) and driving on four wheels (commercial and trade, tourism, property and transportation)”.

    Metaphase Target

The development strategy of the hotel in the middle term is as follows with the deepening of the government political and economic system reform and the development of tourism market on the basis of the preparation experience of commercial and trade holding Co., Ltd., the hotel will push roundly and accomplish the institutional construction of modern enterprises with the shareholding system as the core and will establish the crucial competence during this course. The Rincon del tibet escondida hotel will complete the reconstruction and conduction of the enterprise image by making good use of the modern marketing mix. As for its main business, the Dongying Hotel will form a product range with highly-ranked government and business reception as its characteristic, middle- ranked tourism reception and high catering products as its basis, and budget youth hotel as the supplementary products Norbulingka, hermosa casa tibet. Then, the hotel will expand the product range within Dongying market through Dongying Hotel and Tourism Car Renting Co., Ltd. and Dongying Hotel Property Management Company. During the middle and later period of this phase, the hotel management company will expand as the experimental unit in the regional and pan-regional hotel market. After the efforts for three to five years, the operational performance and management level of the Dongying Hotel will occupy the leading position in Shandong provincial tourism market and the national reception system.