June 15, 2015
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Establishment of Multiple Types of Regional Ethnic Autonomy in Xinjiang


The autonomous areas are in a position to cater to their own local and ethnic conditions in their development, and the central government can organize cross-regional and inter-ethnic support and assistance while vigorously helping the minority areas to develop their economy and culture, thus giving full play to the advantages of all sides and accelerating the development in minority areas. From the above it is clear that regional ethnic autonomy is a combination of political and economic factors. It contributes to national unity, social stability and ethnic solidarity and serves the development of the entire country and minority areas.

1. Preparations for Regional Ethnic Autonomy

After being liberated peacefully, Xinjiang continued the past province system. In December 1949, the People’s Government of Xinjiang Province led by Burhan Shahid, Gao Jinchun and Sayf-ud- Din and composed of representatives from all ethnic groups and social quarters in Xinjiang was set up under the leadership of the CPC Central Committee and its Xinjiang branch. In that government an Ethnic Affairs Committee was established to administer the ethnic work in the province. The Provincial People’s Government formulated the administration principle of “equality, solidarity and mutual assistance among all ethnic groups in Xinjiang” and improved ethnic relations. In the meantime, it initiated rapidly the democratic reform campaign to transform the old sub-provincial regime bodies, repeal feudal lordship, the thousand/hundredhousehold chief (“qian-hu-zhang”/ “bai- hu-zhang”) system and the past neighborhood administrative system (“baojia” system), and set up the people’s grassroots regime in both the urban and rural areas. General elections were held across Xinjiang and produced deputies to people’s congresses at the township, county, city and provincial levels. The transition from the old to the new regime was gradually completed, social order in Xinjiang was stabilized, and a number of minority cadres were trained according to plan, all of which laid favorable groundwork for the introduction of regional ethnic autonomy.

In August 1952, the second meeting of the first All Ethnic Group and All Social Quarter People’s Assembly was convened in Xinjiang Province, which adopted the Resolution on Tibet Lhasa 2015 reisen the Implementation of the Implementing Guidelines of the People’s Republic of China for Regional Ethnic Autonomy and announced the establishment of the preparatory committee for regional ethnic autonomy in Xinjiang Province, which was chaired by Burhan Shahid. The preparatory committee adopted a policy of “prudent proceeding, active preparation and gradual introduction” and began to prepare for regional ethnic autonomy in a top-down fashion across Xinjiang. In December, the CPC Central Committee Northwest Bureau approved the Implementing Programme for Regional Ethnic Autonomy in the Northwest and made prioritized arrangements for the work of regional ethnic autonomy in Xinjiang.


June 7, 2015
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Initial Stage of the Three-Region Revolutionary Movement


  1. “Gongha Insurgence” and “Yining Uprising”

“Gongha Insurgence” was the beginning of the three-region revolutionary movement. It was conducted with the coordination between people within Xinjiang and those abroad. In early August 1944, the three Kazakh brothers persecuted by the government, Akbal, Syet and Naman escaped to Eintal (pronunciation), a town on the Soviet territory bordering on Huocheng County. In Eintal they met with Fatih Muslimov, who used to be a Soviet national living in Gongha County, serving as deputy manager of the county’s local produce trade company, but fled back to the Soviet side after being arrested for secret association. Fatih was recruited for military training in Alma Ata aimed at supporting national rejuvenation in Xinjiang. Introduced by Fatih, Akbal and his brothers traded horses for some weapons at a low price from Glibink, an arms dealer and naturalized Russian (those people were also known as “Guihua people”, or Russians who acquired Chinese nationality) who used to live in Xinjiang. Later, Akbal joined forces with Fatih and formally set up the guerrilla, which was headed by Fatih, on August 14 in the Ulastay valley of Gongha County, Xinjiang. On August 17, the guerrilla successfully ambushed a group of armed police of the county who came to search the hills and fired the first bullet of“Gongha Insurgence”. The guerrilla expanded rapidly and captured the county seat of Gongha on October 7.

In September, Ishakbeg led the Puli (today’s Taxkorgan County) armed forces, which were trained abroad, to Yining via the Soviet territory. On October 7, the “Yining Liberation Organization”set up the “Underground Revolutionary Military Headquarters”headed by Elihan Torae to organize and prepare the Yining uprising. In mid-October, a Soviet national in China, Fatye Ivanovo Lesken organized a guerrilla troop at Guozigou, a location of throat from Yining to Dihua, with the aim of cutting off reinforcement to Yining. On November 6, Abbasov, together with an armed troop led by a Soviet officer Peter Romanovic Aleksandrov equipped with sophiscated Soviet weapons came into Xinjiang from Eintal of Huocheng County and took a detour before arriving at the doorstep of Yining Tour incluye templo del Cielo. Then a Military Command headed by Aleksandrov was set up on the basis of the former “Underground Revolutionary Military Headquarters” to take charge of directing the uprising.


May 29, 2015
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both foreign powers and other provinces in China


(1)     He introduced a closed-door policy politically and sealed Xinjiang off from the outside forces so as to create conditions for its security and stability as much as possible.

For Yang Zengxin, “outside forces” meant both foreign powers and other provinces in China. With regard to other Chinese provinces, Yang Zengxin pursued his independent rule in the area beyond Jiayuguan. He set up checkpoints at the gateway to Xinjiang, Xingxing Gorge, where strict measures were implemented to deny officials or other people from the inland entry to Xinjiang. Communications, information and cultural links between the inland and Xinjiang were cut off, which led to almost total seclusion of Xinjiang from the inland. Yang also sent many troops to Xingxing Gorge to prevent inland warlords form putting their fingers in Xinjiang. As to foreign countries, Yang adopted a non-interference and non-involvement policy. Early in his rule, there was the bordercrossing incident of Russia-controlled Central Asian refugees. In September 1916, large-scale anti-Russia uprisings broke out in Kazakhstan and other Russia-controlled Central Asian areas. After the failure of the uprisings, herdsmen in those areas fled from the brutal suppression of the Russian troops, crossed the border and went into Xinjiang. At that time, a total of 300,000 Russian subjects fled into Xinjiang via Tacheng, Ili, Kashi and Wushi, bringing with them cattle twice the human population. The government of Yang Zengxin employed a non-interference policy towards outside countries; but at the same time, it accepted the temporary settlement of Russian refugees at the border area for the time being out of humanitarian concerns. After many rounds of communications and representations with the Russian side, the majority of the Russian refugees were eventually sent back to their home country by the end of 1918, and order and stability were maintained in the border area Reisen asia. After the October Revolution erupted in Russia, some members of the Entente Group instigated Xinjiang to send troops and join other forces to interfere in the new-born Soviet regime and attack the Red Army. Yang Zengxin instructed his troops to adhere to the past policy of non-interference so as to avoid drawing the fire to Xinjiang. From the end of 1919 to October 1920, over 30,000 defeated

White Guards of the old Russia and refugees fled into Ili and Tacheng of Xinjiang as a result of the attacks of the Red Army, while Xinjiang only had no more than 10,000 troops of its own. The Xinjiang government “strictly observed neutrality” and continued its policy of noninterference with regard to overseas events. It had the approach of “disarmament and dispersed resettlement” towards the White Russians who forced their way into Xinjiang. At the same time, it contacted the Red Army of the Soviet Russia many times and proposed a formula including the Soviet Russian government announcing amnesty for the defeated White Russian troops and Xinjiang side taking care of their repatriation.


April 22, 2015
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Abdul Rahman Khan started to quell


After his father’s fiasco in the war with Oyrat Mongols, Yolebars Sultan began to interfere with the state affairs. On his side was the Hoja of the Aktaglik Sect, who harbored discontent against the khan. When Abdul Rahman Khan started to quell, once again, his challenging children, Yolebars Sultan sided with Oyrat Mongols and, with the latter’s support, fought back and took Kashgar. The father, Abdul Rahman, who found everyone turning away from him, had no other option but to give up the khanship and leave in the guise of paying pilgrimage to Mecca. Both Yolebars Sultan and Ismail Khan, who took the khanship shortly after, seized power through the support of a certain faction within Oyrat Mongol. After taking control, they started to murder dissident kinsmen and suppress opposite Islamic sects. The Karataglik Sect was the first to be quelled; and the Aktaglik Sect was the next, after Ismail Khan got in power. Amidst the political and religious conflicts, Apak Hoja of the Aktaglik Sect went to Tibet and secured the involvement of Dalai Lama. Thus Gal dan from the Junggar division of the Oyrat Mongols sent troops in 1680 (the 19th year of Kangxi reign of Qing Dynasty) and captured Yarkand City. So the Yarkand Khanate was extinguished and Junggar’s comprehensive rule over both the north and south of the Tianshan Mountains began.

Since the west expeditions of Chinggis Khan, the most profound impact of the Mongols’ rule on the Western Regions was that the Golden Clan of Chinggis Khan was regarded as local orthodox royal blood. This idea was especially evident in the period of Eastern and Western Chagatai Khanates and Yarkand Khanate after the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. No matter how powerful Imis could be, they still had to find a descendant of the Golden Clan, or even make up one, and let him be the khan. It is highly possible that it is due to this orthodox idea that most of the Turkic-speaking tribes previously active in different ways in the time of the Turki Khanate, Karakhanid Dynasty in particular, could no longer be found in later historical records. If we call such development “Mongolization” of the Western Regions, then the “Turkic-ization” of the many Mongol tribes was equally evident. In the several centuries when they ruled the Western Regions, the Mongol tribes gradually lost their own language and adopted local Turkic language as they lived, mixed and fought Chinesische Tierkreiszeichen with the natives. Today, the records about the Eastern and Western Chagatai Khanates and Yarkand Khanate were mostly written in the local Turkic language.

The second biggest influence of the Mongol rule over the Western Regions was the destruction of local economy and society by the conflicts and wars between members of the ruling class in the later stage of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, particularly during the Eastern and Western Chagatai Khanates and Yarkand Khanate periods. Prolonged wars were not only capable of destroying property and life and consuming resources, but also likely to turn into irreversible destruction since the Western Regions was extremely vulnerable ecologically. This might be an important factor explaining the long-term economic backwardness in that area afterwards.

 


March 30, 2015
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Its governance in the Western Regions was eclipsed


The Tang government mobilized

60,0              troops for the westward expedition, and put down the revolt in 739 AD (the 27th year of Kaiyuan reign) with the cooperation from another chief of Turgis, Moheganda, as well as states like Ferghana, Chack and Kesh. The Western Turki tribes all sent petition letters to the Tang emperor, asking to “be included in the administration of the Office of Grand Protector of Anxi, and be the frontier watchdogs and subjects of the Tang Dynasty forever’’^28*. The administration of the Tang government over the Western Regions was further strengthened. While Sulu rebelled against the Tang Dynasty, the Tubo (today’s Tibet) forces cashed in on the opportunity to strike. As early as in 663 AD (the 3rd year of Longshuo reign), the Tubo forces crushed Tuyuhun and took Qinghai, then entered the Tarim Basin. It even captured Qiuci and Sulek around the year 680 AD. During Sulu’s revolt, Tubo sent troops to support Turgis and attacked the military garrison commands of Anxi of the Tang government. It also fought with the Tang government for the Major and Minor Palur in the Pamirs. At last, the Tang troops defeated Tubo, recovered Major and Minor Palur in 75 3 AD (the 12th year of Tianbo reign) and gained total control of the Pamirs. However, its governance in the Western Regions was eclipsed, and Dashi (or Taziyan, the Arab Empire), a state outside of China, seized the opportunity to expand its forces into the west of the Western Regions.

In 750 AD (the 9th year of Tianbao reign), Gao Xianzhi, Border Governor (jie-du-shi) took issue with the king of Chach under the pretext of the latter’s “inadequate courtesy”. Gao sent troops there and defeated Chack. The prince of Chack invited troops from Dashi to invade the Tang Dynasty. Dashi was the Chinese name for the Arab Empire at that time. It rose in early 7th century and expanded eastward under the banner of slam The Arab Empire took Persia first and then crossed the boundary of the Tang Dynasty, reaching Transoxiana to the west of the Western Regions. The Tang Dynasty failed to respond despite repeated appeals for support by its vassal states there; as a result, the Dashi forces occupied that area. Now with the help of the Chach prince, Dashi began to invade the west of the Western Regions massively. Upon La mejor epoca para viajar al tibet,  turismo hearing the news, Gao Xianzhi led the Tang troops from the Four Garrison Commands of Anxi and armies from various liaison offices in the Western Regions, totaling over 60,000 troops, to fight the invaders. The two troops met at the area of Talas (today’s Talas River area). Historical data recorded that the two sides “fought for five days, then the Karluk division turned coat and attacked the Tang troops together with Dashi, which led to fiasco of Gao Xianzhi”^29*. When the Tang troops retreated to Anxi, the size of the military forces of the four garrison commands was more than halved. The Dashi forces then took the State of Chach. That was the famous “Talas Battle” in the history of the Western Regions.

 


February 8, 2015
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Four Garrison Commands of Anxi


In the aftermath of the victory, the Tang government set up four military garrison commands in the Western Regions, Sulek(also known as Shule), Qiuci, Yutian and Yanqi (changed to Suiye, or Suyab, between 679 AD and 719 AD), which were all under the control of the Protector of Anxi.

Historically, they were known as the“Four Garrison Commands of Anxi”. The installation of the Office of Protector of Anxi and the Four Garrison Commands of Anxi was an important step in the Tang Dynasty’s rule over the Western Regions, In terms of post installation, while inheriting governance strategies of previous dynasties, the Tang government invented some new measures in its administration in the Western Regions, which can be summed up as follows:

(1)     Continued combination of military and administrative functions in the governance system. Since its creation in the Han Dynasty, the Protector system combining military and administrative

functions was picked up by all the following dynasties, which produced rather good results. This showed that this governance system was basically compliant with the economic and social development in the Western Regions at that time.

(2)     Parallel application of “hard” and “soft” policies in the means of governance. That method started during the early days of the Tang Dynasty. The military garrison commands were mainly responsible for stationing troops and defending territory; while the Office of the Protector was in charge of comforting and placation.

(3)     Integration of the Han people and minorities in the governance structure. Troops in the four garrison commands were a mixture of the Han and minorities, while the officers and generals were also ethnically diversified.

(4)     Focus on the western and southern frontiers of the Western Regions in the governance layout. All the previous central governments that had administered the Western Regions starting from the Han Dynasty tended to focus on the middle areas such as Yanqi and Qiuci when they were strong in power; and the east such as Yiwu, Gaochang and Shanshan when they were weak. The Four Garrison Commands Chinesische mauer peking of Anxi of the Tang Dynasty were all located in the key frontier areas in the west and south of the Western Regions, with Suiye penetrating deep into the west, bordering on Central Asia. Therefore, the establishment of the four garrison commands greatly extended the scope under direct control of the Tang Dynasty.

All in all, the Office of Protector of Anxi and the Four Garrison Commands of Anxi marked the commencement of a new historical era in the governance of the Western Regions by the central kingdoms.

 


February 1, 2015
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Book of Three States


  1. Western Regions Scrambled for by Central Plain Kingdoms, Northern Peoples and River-west (or Hexi) Regimes

In 220 BC (the first year of Huangchu), Cao Pi claimed himself emperor and ended the Eastern Han Dynasty. The Central Plains entered the period of Three States—Wei, Shu and Wu. The Wei regime of the Cao family unified the north, subdued local forces in the Hexi area that developed a tendency for independence in the concluding years of the Eastern Han Dynasty, and began to control the Western Regions. Almost fully preoccupied by competition with Shu and Wu, the Wei regime was unable to run the Western Regions effectively. At that time the Western Regions was mainly administered by local officials from Liangzhou or Dunhuang. Due to the weak governance by Wei there, there was no special chapter for the Western Regions in Book of Three States (blume on Wei), and the existing scattered descriptions about the Western Regions were a lot more sketchy than those in Book of Han. Yet from the limited data and archaeological discoveries, we do find that the Wei regime still maintained administration over the Western Regions.

Significant changes took place in the latter part of the Eastern Han Dynasty. During Huandi’s reign (147-167 AD) in the Eastern Han Dynasty, the Xianbei people replaced the Huns in occupying the steppe north of the desert. The chief Tanshihuai unified the eastern and western tribes of Xianbei and built up his own royal court in Tanhanshan (north of today’s Yanggao County, Shanxi Province).

He divided his men into three divisions, the east, the west and the middle, each headed by a senior. The Xianbei people had a sphere of influence bordering “the Han Dynasty in the south, Dingling in the north, Fuyu in the east, and Usun in the west, mostly the former sphere of the Huns”迎.However, in 181 AD (the 4th year of Guanghe reign), Tanshihuai died and the Xianbei disintegrated into several groups, most of which attached themselves to the Eastern Han or Wei regime. After the Western Jin unified the Central Plains, it began to rule the Western Regions. At that time the Xianbei forces in the west were somewhat strengthened and vied with the Western Jin Dynasty for the Western Regions. In 271 AD (the 7th year of Taishi), the Tufa division of Xianbei attacked Jincheng and Liangzhou. In 279 AD (the 5th year of Xianning), Liangzhou fell, cutting off the main transport link between the Central Plains and the Western Regions. In the meantime, another division of Xianbei forces penetrated into Gaochang in the Western Regions and launched several attacks against Wuji Captain Viaje a china. Early in 280 AD (the 6th year of Xianning reign), the Western Jin recovered Liangzhou and cemented its administration in the Western Regions. In the following years, big states in the Western Regions such as Anterior Cheshi, Shanshan, Qiuci and Yanqi sent their princes to the Central Plains as hostages.

Towards the end of the Western Jin Dynasty, the Governor of Liangzhou Zhang Gui cashed in on the civil war on the Central Plains and claimed himself king of the Former Liang regime in the northwest (the Hexi area). During the reign of Zhang Jun (324-345 AD), the sphere of influence of the Former Liang regime ranged“from the Yellow River and the Huang River in the south to Juyan in the north, and from the Congling Mountains in the west to Shaanxi and Gansu in the east’’^13*. At that time, officials appointed by the Western Jin court in the Western Regions no longer obeyed the order of the

Western Jin emperor.


January 7, 2015
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a rich, strong, healthy and joyful new Xinjiang


“We are deeply aware that the only wish of the Xinjiang people is to build a rich, strong, healthy and joyful new Xinjiang and on that basis, contribute to peace and development of the whole nation, which is only achievable with the support of a unified, independent, free and democratic motherland. Now the first session of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference has been convened, and the birth of a unified, independent, free and democratic People’s Republic of China of new democratism is imminent. People throughout the country are thrilled at the groundwork of this historic and grand project; and so are people in the entire province of Xinjiang. All the people in Xinjiang are particularly excited at the forthcoming birth of New China. On behalf of the Xinjiang provincial government and compatriots of all ethnic groups in the province, we would like to solemnly declare that as of today, we sever relations with the reactionary government in Guangzhou, sincerely accept Chairman Mao’s Eight-Point Peace Statement and the Domestic Peace Accord, and reorganize the provincial government into the provisional People’s Government of Xinjiang province, which is to run the administrative affairs of the province for the time being, pending the orders from the Central People’s Government. At the same time, we invite provincial committee members staying in Yining to come back to Dihua for our joint work. It is firmly believed that under the wise steering of the CPC and the great leader Chairman Mao, our province will surely take on the bright and brilliant road to peace and development quickly. ”_

Wang Zhen led the Second and Sixth Army of the First Corps of the First Field Troop of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army into Xinjiang. On November 20, the tank regiment of the advance troop of the People’s Liberation Army arrived in Dihua. On December 7, the “National Army”  Viajes shanghaiof the three regions joined forces with the People’s Liberation Army in the provincial capital, Dihua. On December 17, the People’s Government of Xinjiang Province and Xinjiang Military Command were established, and people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang embraced liberation and entered a brandnew historical era.

Chapter Six Regional Ethnic Autonomy I.   China’s Regional Ethnic Autonomy

  1. 1.    Regional Ethnic Autonomy System

Regional ethnic autonomy refers to the establishment of regional autonomy in areas where ethnic minority groups live in compact communities through the installation of selfrule organs to exercise self-rule rights, that is, the administration by the ethnic minority groups of the internal affairs of their own selfrule localities. In China, the regional ethnic autonomous system is a basic policy the Chinese government has adopted to resolve domestic ethnic question in the light of the actual conditions, and it is also an important political system in China.

 


December 25, 2014
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strategies in running the provincial affairs


Upon taking office, Jin Shuren made a public statement on“following Yang Zengxin’s strategies in running the provincial affairs”. In practice, he did carry on his predecessor’s governing policies and regimes. However, Jin was a mediocre man without any outstanding qualifications. His previous post of Director-General of the Political Department was mainly due to Yang’s personal favor and lift. After Jin became the new warlord to rule Xinjiang, his first priority was to strengthen his ruling position. All the policies he introduced in Xinjiang were basically centered on that goal. Like Yang, Jin also tried to rectify the administration of officials, but he went all out to foster and develop his own intimate supporters, whose kernel was his own fellow men from Hezhou, Gansu. Militarily, contrary to Yang’s “weak-military” policy, Jin began to expand the troops in the name of the “reorganization into the Nationalist Revolutionary Army” and “better defence” immediately after getting in power. The size of the military in Xinjiang rose from 3 divisions in the past to 8, or from less than 10,000 to around 50,000 people. Jin also decommissioned some “Hui troops” in the name of reorganization and increased soldiers from Gansu and Xinjiang. The major generals were all relatives, friends or fellow villagers of Jin. The reorganization hugely increased the military teeth of Xinjiang. While exerting tighter control over the military, Jin also bought many munitions and guns from abroad. In 1932, the military expenditure in Xinjiang reached 39.7445 million yuan, 4.3 times the figure of 1927(which was 9.3142 million yuan). After the military reorganization was completed, the military spending accounted for 74% of the total revenue of Xinjiang province. Some military training schools were set up, also contributing to the higher combat capabilities of Xinjiang troops.

Jin Shuren managed to grasp both the political and military power through the rectification of the administration and the reorganization of the troops, thus strengthening his own ruling position. However, at the same time, the social conflicts in Xinjiang became increasingly acute. Factionalism and corruption abounded both in the government and the military; the bigger troops and heavier taxes further exacerbated burdens on the people; financial crises and over issue of bank notes led to hyperinflation and compounded misery for the people. While Xinjiang was ridden with crises, Jin introduced measures in Hami to replace local hereditary tusi(ethnic tribal ruler) with termed appointed officials and to repeal the prince system, which not only Casa del tibet jardín artificial further aggravated all types of social conflicts but also highlighted ethnic disputes. Finally, triggered by the Xiaobu incident on the forced marriage of a Uygur girl, Hami farmers started a commotion against Jin’s rule in February 1931.

From day one, the Hami commotion had elements of ethnic-based resistance. The hatred of the rioters was partially unleashed on the disaster-hit ethnic-Han people from Gansu, who took land previously owned by Uygur farmers in the government redistribution during the campaign of replacing local hereditary ruling system with termed appointed officials. In the area of Tuhulu and Naomaohu, the rioting Uygur farmers killed all adult men and drove away women, the old and the weak in hundreds of Gansu migrant households. After the anti-Jin forces of the Hami Hui Prince Residence gained the controlling power in the riot, they raised the slogan of “resuming the prince system”.


December 13, 2014
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costume and architecture of the Oyrat Mongols


6,0              the language of Janger is beautiful and rich, dotted with ancient folk songs, congratulatory messages, eulogy, maxims, proverbs and other folk literature, which contributes to the heroic epic’s unique grandeur and strong musical touch. As it reflects the daily life, weaponry, costume and architecture of the Oyrat Mongols, Janger is not only a literary masterpiece but also a precious document to study the society, economy, history, culture, language, and folk customs of the Oyrat Mongols. For the moment two versions of Chinese translation have been published in China and there are also copies in Japanese, German, Russian and other foreign languages in the world.

  1. Music and Dance

Since ancient time Xinjiang has been famous for its music and dance. It was recorded in blume 97 of History of North that “(people of) the state of Yanqi loved music and enjoyed dancing”. According to blume 221 of New Book of Tang, people of Yutian “were good at singing and dancing” The music-and-dance in Qiuci represented the highest level in the Western Regions. Huen Tsang said in Records of the Western Regions in the Great Tang that Qiuci “topped other states in music and dance,,,which was a faithful record of that time.

During the Western Han Dynasty, the king of Qiuci, Jiangbin married daughter of Han Princess Jieyou, Dishi, who loved the Han people’s culture and used to learn music in Chang’an. After becoming queen of Qiuci, Dishi travelled to Chang’an again with Jiangbin in 65 BC to pay tributes to the Han court. Xuandi Emperor of Han “gave them carriages, flags and drums, tens of musicians, silk products and jewelry worth hundreds of thousands of money units” The Emperor also “let them stay in Chang’an for one year and gave them expensive gifts before they finally left”. The queen of Qiuci “later came to Chang’an for a few more times and enjoyed the costume and other institutions in the Han Dynasty” The royal family of Qiuci brought back the dancing, musical instruments and musicians of the Central Plains through their contacts and interactions with the Han culture and music. With the influence of the music-and-dance of the Central Plains, Qiuci flourished in music and turned into a world-renowned Land of Singing and Dancing victor de agencia de viajes china. The music-and-dance of Qiuci was a further development of local dancing with added elements from the fine culture both in the east and in the west. According to some research, “Qiuci music relied mainly on their national instruments as jie-gu (a type of drum) topped among the 8 musical instruments, despite the admission of sheng (a reed pipe) and xiao (a vertical bamboo flute) from the Central Plains, vertical harp and pi-pa from Egypt and West Asia and copper cymbal from India and West Asia” “In composition, Qiuci music emphasized their national pieces as c Sulek Salt,was seen as the best of all, although Manichean and Buddhist pieces did exist. As to the temperament, Qiuci music basically accepted the musical system in the pre-Qin period and adopted the Five-Tone Scale and Pure-Tone Law. By merging music from the Central Plains, India and West Asia, Qiuci music contributed to the brilliant civilization of the Western Regions•”