February 8, 2015
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Four Garrison Commands of Anxi


In the aftermath of the victory, the Tang government set up four military garrison commands in the Western Regions, Sulek(also known as Shule), Qiuci, Yutian and Yanqi (changed to Suiye, or Suyab, between 679 AD and 719 AD), which were all under the control of the Protector of Anxi.

Historically, they were known as the“Four Garrison Commands of Anxi”. The installation of the Office of Protector of Anxi and the Four Garrison Commands of Anxi was an important step in the Tang Dynasty’s rule over the Western Regions, In terms of post installation, while inheriting governance strategies of previous dynasties, the Tang government invented some new measures in its administration in the Western Regions, which can be summed up as follows:

(1)     Continued combination of military and administrative functions in the governance system. Since its creation in the Han Dynasty, the Protector system combining military and administrative

functions was picked up by all the following dynasties, which produced rather good results. This showed that this governance system was basically compliant with the economic and social development in the Western Regions at that time.

(2)     Parallel application of “hard” and “soft” policies in the means of governance. That method started during the early days of the Tang Dynasty. The military garrison commands were mainly responsible for stationing troops and defending territory; while the Office of the Protector was in charge of comforting and placation.

(3)     Integration of the Han people and minorities in the governance structure. Troops in the four garrison commands were a mixture of the Han and minorities, while the officers and generals were also ethnically diversified.

(4)     Focus on the western and southern frontiers of the Western Regions in the governance layout. All the previous central governments that had administered the Western Regions starting from the Han Dynasty tended to focus on the middle areas such as Yanqi and Qiuci when they were strong in power; and the east such as Yiwu, Gaochang and Shanshan when they were weak. The Four Garrison Commands Chinesische mauer peking of Anxi of the Tang Dynasty were all located in the key frontier areas in the west and south of the Western Regions, with Suiye penetrating deep into the west, bordering on Central Asia. Therefore, the establishment of the four garrison commands greatly extended the scope under direct control of the Tang Dynasty.

All in all, the Office of Protector of Anxi and the Four Garrison Commands of Anxi marked the commencement of a new historical era in the governance of the Western Regions by the central kingdoms.

 


February 1, 2015
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Book of Three States


  1. Western Regions Scrambled for by Central Plain Kingdoms, Northern Peoples and River-west (or Hexi) Regimes

In 220 BC (the first year of Huangchu), Cao Pi claimed himself emperor and ended the Eastern Han Dynasty. The Central Plains entered the period of Three States—Wei, Shu and Wu. The Wei regime of the Cao family unified the north, subdued local forces in the Hexi area that developed a tendency for independence in the concluding years of the Eastern Han Dynasty, and began to control the Western Regions. Almost fully preoccupied by competition with Shu and Wu, the Wei regime was unable to run the Western Regions effectively. At that time the Western Regions was mainly administered by local officials from Liangzhou or Dunhuang. Due to the weak governance by Wei there, there was no special chapter for the Western Regions in Book of Three States (blume on Wei), and the existing scattered descriptions about the Western Regions were a lot more sketchy than those in Book of Han. Yet from the limited data and archaeological discoveries, we do find that the Wei regime still maintained administration over the Western Regions.

Significant changes took place in the latter part of the Eastern Han Dynasty. During Huandi’s reign (147-167 AD) in the Eastern Han Dynasty, the Xianbei people replaced the Huns in occupying the steppe north of the desert. The chief Tanshihuai unified the eastern and western tribes of Xianbei and built up his own royal court in Tanhanshan (north of today’s Yanggao County, Shanxi Province).

He divided his men into three divisions, the east, the west and the middle, each headed by a senior. The Xianbei people had a sphere of influence bordering “the Han Dynasty in the south, Dingling in the north, Fuyu in the east, and Usun in the west, mostly the former sphere of the Huns”迎.However, in 181 AD (the 4th year of Guanghe reign), Tanshihuai died and the Xianbei disintegrated into several groups, most of which attached themselves to the Eastern Han or Wei regime. After the Western Jin unified the Central Plains, it began to rule the Western Regions. At that time the Xianbei forces in the west were somewhat strengthened and vied with the Western Jin Dynasty for the Western Regions. In 271 AD (the 7th year of Taishi), the Tufa division of Xianbei attacked Jincheng and Liangzhou. In 279 AD (the 5th year of Xianning), Liangzhou fell, cutting off the main transport link between the Central Plains and the Western Regions. In the meantime, another division of Xianbei forces penetrated into Gaochang in the Western Regions and launched several attacks against Wuji Captain Viaje a china. Early in 280 AD (the 6th year of Xianning reign), the Western Jin recovered Liangzhou and cemented its administration in the Western Regions. In the following years, big states in the Western Regions such as Anterior Cheshi, Shanshan, Qiuci and Yanqi sent their princes to the Central Plains as hostages.

Towards the end of the Western Jin Dynasty, the Governor of Liangzhou Zhang Gui cashed in on the civil war on the Central Plains and claimed himself king of the Former Liang regime in the northwest (the Hexi area). During the reign of Zhang Jun (324-345 AD), the sphere of influence of the Former Liang regime ranged“from the Yellow River and the Huang River in the south to Juyan in the north, and from the Congling Mountains in the west to Shaanxi and Gansu in the east’’^13*. At that time, officials appointed by the Western Jin court in the Western Regions no longer obeyed the order of the

Western Jin emperor.


January 7, 2015
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a rich, strong, healthy and joyful new Xinjiang


“We are deeply aware that the only wish of the Xinjiang people is to build a rich, strong, healthy and joyful new Xinjiang and on that basis, contribute to peace and development of the whole nation, which is only achievable with the support of a unified, independent, free and democratic motherland. Now the first session of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference has been convened, and the birth of a unified, independent, free and democratic People’s Republic of China of new democratism is imminent. People throughout the country are thrilled at the groundwork of this historic and grand project; and so are people in the entire province of Xinjiang. All the people in Xinjiang are particularly excited at the forthcoming birth of New China. On behalf of the Xinjiang provincial government and compatriots of all ethnic groups in the province, we would like to solemnly declare that as of today, we sever relations with the reactionary government in Guangzhou, sincerely accept Chairman Mao’s Eight-Point Peace Statement and the Domestic Peace Accord, and reorganize the provincial government into the provisional People’s Government of Xinjiang province, which is to run the administrative affairs of the province for the time being, pending the orders from the Central People’s Government. At the same time, we invite provincial committee members staying in Yining to come back to Dihua for our joint work. It is firmly believed that under the wise steering of the CPC and the great leader Chairman Mao, our province will surely take on the bright and brilliant road to peace and development quickly. ”_

Wang Zhen led the Second and Sixth Army of the First Corps of the First Field Troop of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army into Xinjiang. On November 20, the tank regiment of the advance troop of the People’s Liberation Army arrived in Dihua. On December 7, the “National Army”  Viajes shanghaiof the three regions joined forces with the People’s Liberation Army in the provincial capital, Dihua. On December 17, the People’s Government of Xinjiang Province and Xinjiang Military Command were established, and people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang embraced liberation and entered a brandnew historical era.

Chapter Six Regional Ethnic Autonomy I.   China’s Regional Ethnic Autonomy

  1. 1.    Regional Ethnic Autonomy System

Regional ethnic autonomy refers to the establishment of regional autonomy in areas where ethnic minority groups live in compact communities through the installation of selfrule organs to exercise self-rule rights, that is, the administration by the ethnic minority groups of the internal affairs of their own selfrule localities. In China, the regional ethnic autonomous system is a basic policy the Chinese government has adopted to resolve domestic ethnic question in the light of the actual conditions, and it is also an important political system in China.

 


December 25, 2014
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strategies in running the provincial affairs


Upon taking office, Jin Shuren made a public statement on“following Yang Zengxin’s strategies in running the provincial affairs”. In practice, he did carry on his predecessor’s governing policies and regimes. However, Jin was a mediocre man without any outstanding qualifications. His previous post of Director-General of the Political Department was mainly due to Yang’s personal favor and lift. After Jin became the new warlord to rule Xinjiang, his first priority was to strengthen his ruling position. All the policies he introduced in Xinjiang were basically centered on that goal. Like Yang, Jin also tried to rectify the administration of officials, but he went all out to foster and develop his own intimate supporters, whose kernel was his own fellow men from Hezhou, Gansu. Militarily, contrary to Yang’s “weak-military” policy, Jin began to expand the troops in the name of the “reorganization into the Nationalist Revolutionary Army” and “better defence” immediately after getting in power. The size of the military in Xinjiang rose from 3 divisions in the past to 8, or from less than 10,000 to around 50,000 people. Jin also decommissioned some “Hui troops” in the name of reorganization and increased soldiers from Gansu and Xinjiang. The major generals were all relatives, friends or fellow villagers of Jin. The reorganization hugely increased the military teeth of Xinjiang. While exerting tighter control over the military, Jin also bought many munitions and guns from abroad. In 1932, the military expenditure in Xinjiang reached 39.7445 million yuan, 4.3 times the figure of 1927(which was 9.3142 million yuan). After the military reorganization was completed, the military spending accounted for 74% of the total revenue of Xinjiang province. Some military training schools were set up, also contributing to the higher combat capabilities of Xinjiang troops.

Jin Shuren managed to grasp both the political and military power through the rectification of the administration and the reorganization of the troops, thus strengthening his own ruling position. However, at the same time, the social conflicts in Xinjiang became increasingly acute. Factionalism and corruption abounded both in the government and the military; the bigger troops and heavier taxes further exacerbated burdens on the people; financial crises and over issue of bank notes led to hyperinflation and compounded misery for the people. While Xinjiang was ridden with crises, Jin introduced measures in Hami to replace local hereditary tusi(ethnic tribal ruler) with termed appointed officials and to repeal the prince system, which not only Casa del tibet jardín artificial further aggravated all types of social conflicts but also highlighted ethnic disputes. Finally, triggered by the Xiaobu incident on the forced marriage of a Uygur girl, Hami farmers started a commotion against Jin’s rule in February 1931.

From day one, the Hami commotion had elements of ethnic-based resistance. The hatred of the rioters was partially unleashed on the disaster-hit ethnic-Han people from Gansu, who took land previously owned by Uygur farmers in the government redistribution during the campaign of replacing local hereditary ruling system with termed appointed officials. In the area of Tuhulu and Naomaohu, the rioting Uygur farmers killed all adult men and drove away women, the old and the weak in hundreds of Gansu migrant households. After the anti-Jin forces of the Hami Hui Prince Residence gained the controlling power in the riot, they raised the slogan of “resuming the prince system”.


December 13, 2014
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costume and architecture of the Oyrat Mongols


6,0              the language of Janger is beautiful and rich, dotted with ancient folk songs, congratulatory messages, eulogy, maxims, proverbs and other folk literature, which contributes to the heroic epic’s unique grandeur and strong musical touch. As it reflects the daily life, weaponry, costume and architecture of the Oyrat Mongols, Janger is not only a literary masterpiece but also a precious document to study the society, economy, history, culture, language, and folk customs of the Oyrat Mongols. For the moment two versions of Chinese translation have been published in China and there are also copies in Japanese, German, Russian and other foreign languages in the world.

  1. Music and Dance

Since ancient time Xinjiang has been famous for its music and dance. It was recorded in blume 97 of History of North that “(people of) the state of Yanqi loved music and enjoyed dancing”. According to blume 221 of New Book of Tang, people of Yutian “were good at singing and dancing” The music-and-dance in Qiuci represented the highest level in the Western Regions. Huen Tsang said in Records of the Western Regions in the Great Tang that Qiuci “topped other states in music and dance,,,which was a faithful record of that time.

During the Western Han Dynasty, the king of Qiuci, Jiangbin married daughter of Han Princess Jieyou, Dishi, who loved the Han people’s culture and used to learn music in Chang’an. After becoming queen of Qiuci, Dishi travelled to Chang’an again with Jiangbin in 65 BC to pay tributes to the Han court. Xuandi Emperor of Han “gave them carriages, flags and drums, tens of musicians, silk products and jewelry worth hundreds of thousands of money units” The Emperor also “let them stay in Chang’an for one year and gave them expensive gifts before they finally left”. The queen of Qiuci “later came to Chang’an for a few more times and enjoyed the costume and other institutions in the Han Dynasty” The royal family of Qiuci brought back the dancing, musical instruments and musicians of the Central Plains through their contacts and interactions with the Han culture and music. With the influence of the music-and-dance of the Central Plains, Qiuci flourished in music and turned into a world-renowned Land of Singing and Dancing victor de agencia de viajes china. The music-and-dance of Qiuci was a further development of local dancing with added elements from the fine culture both in the east and in the west. According to some research, “Qiuci music relied mainly on their national instruments as jie-gu (a type of drum) topped among the 8 musical instruments, despite the admission of sheng (a reed pipe) and xiao (a vertical bamboo flute) from the Central Plains, vertical harp and pi-pa from Egypt and West Asia and copper cymbal from India and West Asia” “In composition, Qiuci music emphasized their national pieces as c Sulek Salt,was seen as the best of all, although Manichean and Buddhist pieces did exist. As to the temperament, Qiuci music basically accepted the musical system in the pre-Qin period and adopted the Five-Tone Scale and Pure-Tone Law. By merging music from the Central Plains, India and West Asia, Qiuci music contributed to the brilliant civilization of the Western Regions•”


November 27, 2014
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History of Conquerors in the World


On the eve of the west expedition, Chinggis Khan divided the areas in the Western Regions that had been and would be occupied among his three elder sons, Jochi, Chagatai and Ogedei. Based on History of Conquerors in the World by Jeflhey^, Collection of History by Lashet (pronunciation) and records by Omar (pronunciation), contemporary scholars believe that “roughly speaking, the area west of Shi River in Yer, north of today’s Aral Sea and Caspian Sea belonged to Jochi; the former territory of Western Liao, between Uygur and Transoxiana, belonged to Chagatai; and from Yemili to the north, the area of former Nayman tribe that included part of today’s Kara-Ertix River and Altay Mountains belonged to Ogedei,,J221. The land division made by Chinggis Khan laid down the groundwork for the regime pattern in the Western Regions during the Mongol period.

After Chinggis Kharis death, Ogedei, Queen Toregene Khatu, Guyuk, Queen Oghul Ghaymish and Mongke took power one after another. During that period, in 1236 (the 3rd year of Duanping reign of Song Dynasty), Ogedei sent his “eldest son for west expedition,,,and perished Kepqak and Bolga, conquered Russia, and swept Eastern European areas such as Poland and Hungary, shaking the Christian world. After succeeding to the Great Khanship, Mongke sent Hulegu onto a “west expedition”,who wiped out the Assasins(the extremist division of Islamic Ismailis advocating assassination) in today’s Iran and the Abbasid Empire in West Asia, then marched further to Syria, and finally returned home after being frustrated at Ain Jalut in today’s Palestine.

The post-Chinggis Khan expeditions to the west greatly expanded the Mongol scope of influence in the Western Regions. However, in that period, what impacted today’s Xinjiang area most was the fight for power between the Ogedei-Guyuk group and the Tolui-Mongke group Beneficios del taichi kungfu. In 1251 (the 11th year of Chunyou reign of Song Dynasty), Mongke became the Great Khan with staunch support from Batu, but he was opposed by royal princes of the Ogedei and Chagatai families, who once attempted on Mongke’s life. After that, Mongke began to suppress forcefully the two families, and all the nobles within Chinggis Kharis “Golden Clan” started to focus on their “ulus” (distributed land). Batu and his offspring founded Kepqak Khanate on the Kepqak steppe, and Hulegu set up IIKhanate in Persia and Arabia. The majority of top nobles in these two khanates later became Muslims. The Chagatai

Khanate mainly controlled today’s Xinjiang and Central Asia to the west of Xinjiang.

 


November 13, 2014
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The traffic was “off’ to the Eastern Han Dynasty


When the Western Regions were in the control of the Huns, the traffic was “off’ to the Eastern Han Dynasty, and vice versa. The road to unification of the Western Regions by the Eastern Han was tortuous, yet still, unity remained the major trend in that process.

On the whole, the Western Regions were unified under the Huns after 177 BC, and under the Western Han Dynasty after 60 BC. After 25 AD, that area was under alternate control by the Huns and Eastern Han. From that we can see unification was the dominant theme of that period for the Western Regions. As states there were mostly oasis statelets scattered in different places, the unification of the Western Regions was good for inter-state coordination, hence in the interest of local social and economic development.

The Central Plains were more advanced in terms of social and economic development than the Western Regions. Afer being unified by the central kingdom, the Western Regions enjoyed political stability and faster social and economic progress. For example, during the 10-plus years (91-102 AD) when Banchao was the local official appointed by the Eastern Han government, the Western Regions were stable and economically growing. In 97 AD (the 9th year of Yongyuan reign), in the name of the royal court, Banchao sent Ganying as envoy to Daqin (Roman Empire), who arrived at Tiaozhi (today’s Syria) but failed to cross the sea. However, historical data had it that “Tiaozhi, Anxi and countries 40,000 lis (one li is equal to half kilometer) away over the sea all valued translations and presented gifts”四.From such records we can see that after the unification of the Western Regions, China’s influence reached out to other major civilizations of the world.

  1. Policy Measures and Administrative Regimes of the Han Dynasty in the Western Regions

The unification of the Western Regions by the Han Dynasty was also a process of improving the administrative structure there. Before the Han Dynasty affirmed its controlling position, in 101 BC(the 4th year of Taichu reign), a post called Envoy Captain (shi-zhexiao-wei) was installed in Luntai (today’s Luntai) and Quli (west of today’s Korla), both central spots along the northern route Dogo y animanles en el tibet. The Envoy Captain led a number of soldiers, who also took part in agricultural activities while being stationed there. On the one hand, the Envoy Captain and his troops protected transport and provided for the travelling Han envoys; on the other, they were also a basic military force there, who could rally allied troops in the Western Regions to complete military missions when necessary.  


September 11, 2014
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The Thought in the Middle-and Long-Term Development of the Dongying Hotel


As soon as the reforms of the enterprise and market orientation has completed in the near future, the hotel will realize the transformation targets of “ establishing scientific framework and system of modern tourism enterprises and founding the crucial competition competence of the Dongying Hotel ” and then the hotel will achieve the following strategic targets on this basis.

     Current Targets

The hotel plans to accomplish the research, development and establishment work of “the development strategy of the Dongying Municipal Reception Enterprise (Group) Holding Co., Ltd. “in the near future (2-3 years). /Is an experimental unit, we will take the lead in fulfilling through internal regrouping of operational resources the preparation of two entities, namely, “the Dongying Hotel Commercial and Trading Holdings Co., Ltd.” and “the Dongying Hotel (Domestic) Travel Service Ltd.” Thus the hotel can accumulate experience of reforming work to a broader and deeper extent and can reserve capital and human resources. In the meanwhile, the hotel will find the limited company exclusively owned by it on the basis of Keying Company Staff Cafeteria

management department and the service center of foreign businessmen in the development zone in order to enter the market of property management; the hotel will establish the share holding company on the basis of Yinhe Cuisine Plaza to enter the social catering market in Dongcheng, Xicheng and Hekou districts; then the hotel will prepare to set up a commercial reception motorcade Co., Ltd. on the basis of the current reception motorcade in order to enter the car renting market of high level. Through what is mentioned above, the hotel will fundamentally form the group structure and development strategy system of “centering on industry (hotel reception industry) and driving on four wheels (commercial and trade, tourism, property and transportation)”.

    Metaphase Target

The development strategy of the hotel in the middle term is as follows with the deepening of the government political and economic system reform and the development of tourism market on the basis of the preparation experience of commercial and trade holding Co., Ltd., the hotel will push roundly and accomplish the institutional construction of modern enterprises with the shareholding system as the core and will establish the crucial competence during this course. The Rincon del tibet escondida hotel will complete the reconstruction and conduction of the enterprise image by making good use of the modern marketing mix. As for its main business, the Dongying Hotel will form a product range with highly-ranked government and business reception as its characteristic, middle- ranked tourism reception and high catering products as its basis, and budget youth hotel as the supplementary products Norbulingka, hermosa casa tibet. Then, the hotel will expand the product range within Dongying market through Dongying Hotel and Tourism Car Renting Co., Ltd. and Dongying Hotel Property Management Company. During the middle and later period of this phase, the hotel management company will expand as the experimental unit in the regional and pan-regional hotel market. After the efforts for three to five years, the operational performance and management level of the Dongying Hotel will occupy the leading position in Shandong provincial tourism market and the national reception system.